FSC International – Forests for All Forever

Facts & Figures

199,863,656 ha certified
33,781 CoC certificates
1,558 FM/CoC certificates

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Recommended readings

Below are research papers, reports and other literature on impacts, outcomes and effects of FSC certification organized by categories:

FSC’s History and mission:

  • Synnott T. The Early Years of FSC.
    Personal notes of a founding member and the first FSC Executive Director about the genesis of FSC.
  • Bernstein S. and Cashore B. 2004. Non-state global governance: is forest certification a legitimate alternative to a global forest convention? Hard Choices, Soft Law: Voluntary Standards In Global Trade, Environment, And Social Governance.
    These international experts on global environmental governance analysis the legitimacy and viability of non-state environmental governance. They argue that the FSC, presented as the most prominent example of transnational certification scheme, meets international legitimacy requirements.

General/ multiple aspects:

Environmental aspects:

Social aspects:

Economic aspects:

Governance and political aspects:

  • Carlson A. and Palmer C. 2016. A qualitative meta-synthesis of the benefits of eco-labeling in developing countries. Ecological Economics, 127, 129-145. 
    This meta-synthesis examines the different types of benefits associated with eco-labeling in developing countries. All producers studied expressed satisfaction with FSC certification, mostly due to governance and social benefits. Especially, three categories of benefits have been detected: learning, government support and empowerment, and reputation, which would justify the costs associated with getting certified.

Knock-on/ spill-over effects:

  • Tysiachniouk M. and Henry L. A. 2015. Managed citizenship: global forest governance and democracy in Russian communities. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 22(6), 476-89. 
    The authors used long-term qualitative data from case studies in Russia to argue that a spill-over effect of FSC certification is the development of “managed citizenship”, defined as a type of citizenship in which local populations gain more power and get involved in long-term democratic, participatory governance.
  • Savilaakso S. et al. 2017. Timber certification as a catalyst for change in forest governance in Cameroon, Indonesia, and Peru. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 13(1), 116-133.
    This study investigates how the governance regime in Cameroon, Indonesia and Peru has been influenced by FSC certification. It shows that all stages of policy process (agenda setting and negotiation; implementation, and monitoring and enforcement) have been influenced, in addition to forest management practices concerning social and environmental issues.

The FSC M&E Manager welcomes the submission of any research papers related to FSC certification and processes. Please contact m.karmann@fsc.org.